What existed before the Universe was created? Where does self-worth come from? Do the ends always justify the means? The Philosophy Book answers the most profound questions we all have. It is your visual guide to the fundamental nature of existence, society, and how we think. Discover what it means to be free, whether science can predict the future, or how language shapes our thoughts. Learn about the world's greatest philosophers, from Plato and Confucius to modern thinkers such as Chomsky and Derrida and follow charts and timelines that graphically show the progression of ideas and logic. Written in plain English, with concise explanations of branches of philosophy such as metaphysics and ethics, it untangles complicated theories and makes sense of abstract concepts. It is an ideal reference whether you're a student or a general reader, with simple explanations of big ideas, including the four noble truths, the soul, class struggle, moral purpose, and good and evil. If you're curious about the deeper questions in life, The Philosophy Book is both an invaluable reference and illuminating read.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Penguin, Pages: 352 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781465441065


For all the advances of the civil rights movement, and for all the cultural diversity attending economic prosperity, many white southerners have been unable to relinquish the Confederate past and the idea of a heroic, liberty-loving South crushed by power-hungry Yankees. The Making of a Confederate uses the life of one man--Walter Lenoir of North Carolina--to explore the origins of southern white identity and the myriad ambiguities and complexities embedded in that history. Lenoir's case is particularly fascinating in the way it complicates notions about the sources of rabid devotion to the Confederate cause. Although born into a wealthy slaveholding family, Lenoir acknowledged the institution's evils and intended to divest himself of his inherited slaves. Opposed to secession, he planned in 1860 to move to Minnesota in the free North. With the war's outbreak, however, everything changed. Lenoir joined the Confederate army and fervidly supported its cause to the end. His postwar career reveals how one Confederate coped with bereavement and a crushing sense of loss, as he refashioned his memory of what had caused the war and embraced the cult of the Lost Cause. And while some southerners sank into depression, sought accommodation with the victors, or opposed the new order through various means, Lenoir found a fresh purpose by withdrawing to his acreage in the North Carolina mountains to pursue his own vision of the South's future, one that called for greater self-sufficiency and a more efficient use of the land. For Walter Lenoir and many other Confederates, the war never really ended. In tracing this compelling story, William Barney offers new insight into the uses of memory and how individual choices transform abstract historical processes into concrete actions.
Genre: Biography & Autobiography, Editor: Oxford University Press, Pages: 262 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780195314359


Discover the world's greatest thinkers and their groundbreaking notions! Too often, textbooks turn the noteworthy theories, principles, and figures of philosophy into tedious discourse that even Plato would reject. Philosophy 101 cuts out the boring details and exhausting philosophical methodology, and instead, gives you a lesson in philosophy that keeps you engaged as you explore the fascinating history of human thought and inquisition. From Aristotle and Heidegger to free will and metaphysics, Philosophy 101 is packed with hundreds of entertaining philosophical tidbits, illustrations, and thought puzzles that you won't be able to find anywhere else. So whether you're looking to unravel the mysteries of existentialism, or just want to find out what made Voltaire tick, Philosophy 101 has all the answers--even the ones you didn't know you were looking for.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Simon and Schuster, Pages: 401 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781440567681


Philosophers and neuroscientists address central issues in both fields, including morality, action, mental illness, consciousness, perception, and memory. Philosophers and neuroscientists grapple with the same profound questions involving consciousness, perception, behavior, and moral judgment, but only recently have the two disciplines begun to work together. This volume offers fourteen original chapters that address these issues, each written by a team that includes at least one philosopher and one neuroscientist who integrate disciplinary perspectives and reflect the latest research in both fields. Topics include morality, empathy, agency, the self, mental illness, neuroprediction, optogenetics, pain, vision, consciousness, memory, concepts, mind wandering, and the neural basis of psychological categories. The chapters first address basic issues about our social and moral lives: how we decide to act and ought to act toward each other, how we understand each other’s mental states and selves, and how we deal with pressing social problems regarding crime and mental or brain health. The following chapters consider basic issues about our mental lives: how we classify and recall what we experience, how we see and feel objects in the world, how we ponder plans and alternatives, and how our brains make us conscious and create specific mental states.
Genre: Science, Editor: MIT Press, Pages: 511 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780262045438


Only recently has the phenomenon of technology become an object of in terest for philosophers. The first attempts at a philosophy of technology date back scarcely a hundred years - a span of time extremely short when com pared with the antiquity of philosophical reflections on nature, science, and society. Over that hundred-year span, speculative, critical, and empiricist approaches of various sorts have been put forward. Nevertheless, even now there remains a broad gap between the importance of technology in the real world and the sparse number of philosophical works dedicated to the under standing of modern technology. As a result of the complex structure of modern technology, it can be dealt with in very different ways. These range from metaphysical exposition to efforts aimed at political consensus. Quite naturally, within such a broad range, certain national accents can be discovered-; they are shaped by a com mon language, accepted philosophical traditions, and concrete problems requiring consideration. Even so, the worldwide impact of technology, its penetration into all spheres of individual, social, and cultural life, together with the urgency of the problems raised in this context - all these demand a joint philosophical discussion that transcends the barriers of language and cultural differences. The papers printed here are intended to exemplify such an effort at culture-transcending philosophical discussion.
Genre: Science, Editor: Springer Science & Business Media, Pages: 344 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9789400971240


Playwright, novelist, political theorist, literary critic and philosopher, Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80) remains an iconic figure. This book examines his philosophical ideas and methods. It is an introductory guide for the student who wishes to understand Sartre's philosophical argumentation. It reconstructs in plain language key instances of Sartre's philosophical reasoning at work and shows how certain questions arise for Sartre and what philosophical tools he uses to address those questions. Each chapter considers a range of issues in the Sartrean corpus including his conception of phenomenology, the question of self-identity, the Sartrean view of conscious beings, his understanding of the self, his theory of value, human action as both the originator and the outcome of social processes, dialectical reason, and his conception of artistic activity. Hatzimoysis uncovers the philosophical argumentation, identifies Sartre's most important philosophical ideas and addresses the arguments in which those ideas are employed. Readers are able to get a real understanding of Sartre's approach to the activity of philosophising and how his method favours certain types of philosophical analysis.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Routledge, Pages: 240 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781317494003


Death has long been a pre-occupation of philosophers, and this is especially so today. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death collects 21 newly commissioned essays that cover current philosophical thinking of death-related topics across the entire range of the discipline. These include metaphysical topics--such as the nature of death, the possibility of an afterlife, the nature of persons, and how our thinking about time affects what we think about death--as well as axiological topics, such as whether death is bad for its victim, what makes it bad to die, what attitude it is fitting to take towards death, the possibility of posthumous harm, and the desirability of immortality. The contributors also explore the views of ancient philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato and Epicurus on topics related to the philosophy of death, and questions in normative ethics, such as what makes killing wrong when it is wrong, and whether it is wrong to kill fetuses, non-human animals, combatants in war, and convicted murderers. With chapters written by a wide range of experts in metaphysics, ethics, and conceptual analysis, and designed to give the reader a comprehensive view of recent developments in the philosophical study of death, this Handbook will appeal to a broad audience in philosophy, particularly in ethics and metaphysics.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Oxford University Press, Pages: 517 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780190271459


This is a comprehensive collection of essays that explores cutting-edge work in experimental philosophy, a radical new movement that applies quantitative and empirical methods to traditional topics of philosophical inquiry. Situates the discipline within Western philosophy and then surveys the work of experimental philosophers by sub-discipline Contains insights for a diverse range of fields, including linguistics, cognitive science, anthropology, economics, and psychology, as well as almost every area of professional philosophy today Edited by two rising scholars who take a broad and inclusive approach to the field Offers a complete introduction for non-specialists and students to the central approaches, findings, challenges, and controversies in experimental philosophy
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: John Wiley & Sons, Pages: 640 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781118661697


A distinguished mathematician traces the history of science, illustrating philosophy's ongoing role, explaining technology's erosion of the rapport between the two fields, and offering suggestions for their reunion. 1962 edition.
Genre: Science, Editor: Courier Corporation, Pages: 416 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780486162171


This unique collection of essays on the late Pierre Hadot’s revolutionary approach to studying and practising philosophy traces the links between his work and that of thinkers from Wittgenstein to the French postmodernists. It shows how his secular spiritual exercises expand our horizons, enabling us to be in a fuller, more authentic way. Comprehensive treatment of a neglected theme: philosophy’s practical relevance in our lives Interdisciplinary analysis reflects the wide influence of Hadot’s thought Explores the links between Hadot’s ideas and those of a wealth of ancient and modern thinkers, including the French postmodernists Offers a practical ‘third way’ in philosophy beyond the dichotomy of Continental and analytical traditions
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: John Wiley & Sons, Pages: 344 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781118609224