The Twelfth Edition of this best-selling, topically organized anthology provides a superb balance of historical selections and recent material. This new edition features more readings than ever before--79 total--all, where necessary, in the finest translations available. The readings complement each other and naturally build on the topic being covered. Clear, concise introductions to each Part provide just enough guidance to let students learn from experiencing the readings themselves. The text's long-heralded selection of readings covers topics such as reason and religious belief, human knowledge, mind and its place in nature, determinism, free will and responsibility, and morality and its critics in five parts with careful attention to opposing points of view.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Pages: 706 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 0534625576



Genre: Philosophy, Editor: , Pages: 706 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 0534274943


Classic introduction to the subject of philosophical enquiry.
Genre: Knowledge, Theory of, Editor: Oxford University Press, USA, Pages: 129 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780192854230


Can we reconcile the idea that we are free and responsible agents with the idea that what we do is determined according to natural laws? For centuries, philosophers have tried in different ways to show that we can. Hilary Bok takes a fresh approach here, as she seeks to show that the two ideas are compatible by drawing on the distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. Bok argues that when we engage in practical reasoning--the kind that involves asking "what should I do?" and sifting through alternatives to find the most justifiable course of action--we have reason to hold ourselves responsible for what we do. But when we engage in theoretical reasoning--searching for causal explanations of events--we have no reason to apply concepts like freedom and responsibility. Bok contends that libertarians' arguments against "compatibilist" justifications of moral responsibility fail because they describe human actions only from the standpoint of theoretical reasoning. To establish this claim, she examines which conceptions of freedom of the will and moral responsibility are relevant to practical reasoning and shows that these conceptions are not vulnerable to many objections that libertarians have directed against compatibilists. Bok concludes that the truth or falsity of the claim that we are free and responsible agents in the sense those conceptions spell out is ultimately independent of deterministic accounts of the causes of human actions. Clearly written and powerfully argued, Freedom and Responsibility is a major addition to current debate about some of philosophy's oldest and deepest questions.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Princeton University Press, Pages: 248 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781400822737


Many philosophers think that if you're morally responsible for a state of affairs, you must be a cause of it. In From Morality to the End of Reason, Ingmar Persson argues that this strand of common sense morality is asymmetrical in that it features the act-omission doctrine according to which there are stronger reasons against performing some harmful actions than in favour of performing any beneficial actions. He critically examines the concept of a rightand the conception of responsibility as causally-based, which results in replacing reasons of rights by reasons of beneficence to the effect that individuals be benefited, and we are made responsible for what is under the influence of our practical reasons. The argument gives rise to a symmetrical,consequentialist morality which is more demanding but less authoritative than common sense morality because reasons of beneficence are weaker than reasons of rights. The question is whether such a morality possesses enough authority to command our compliance.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Oxford University Press, Pages: 328 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780199676552


In The Responsibility of Reason, Ralph C. Hancock undertakes no less than to answer the Heideggerian challenge. Offering trenchant and original interpretations of Aristotle, Heidegger, Strauss, and Alexis de Tocqueville, he argues that Tocqueville saw the essential more clearly than apparently deeper philosophers. Hancock addresses political theorists on the question of the grounding of liberalism, and, at the same time, philosophers on the most basic questions of the meaning and limits of reason. Moreover, he shows how these questions are for us inseparable.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Pages: 346 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9781442207394


What are our duties or rights? How should we act? What are we responsible for? Joseph Raz examines the philosophical issues underlying these everyday questions. He explores the nature of normativity--the reasoning behind certain beliefs and emotions about how we should behave--and offers a novel account of responsibility.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Oxford University Press, Pages: 290 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780199693818


intuitive sense of freedom be reconciled with causal determinism? How can moral judgment and punishment be compatible with the belief that the events that are human actions are, like any other event, the effects of prior causes? --
Genre: Law, Editor: Oxford University Press, Pages: 394 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780199545551


In this book Michael McKenna advances a new theory of moral responsibility, one that builds upon the work of P.F. Strawson. As McKenna demonstrates, moral responsibility can be explained on analogy with a conversation. The relation between a morally responsible agent and those who hold her morally responsible is similar to the relation between a speaker and her audience. A responsible agent's actions are bearers of meaning -- agent meaning -- just as a speaker's utterances are bearers of speaker meaning. Agent meaning is a function of the morally quality of the will with which the agent acts. Those who hold an agent morally responsible for what she does do so by responding to her as if in a conversation. By responding with certain morally reactive attitudes, such as resentment or indignation, they thereby communicate their regard for the meaning taken to be revealed in that agent's actions. It is then open for the agent held responsible to respond to those holding her responsible by offering an apology, a justification, an excuse, or some other response, thereby extending the evolving conversational exchange. The conversational theory of moral responsibility that McKenna develops here accepts two features of Strawson's theory: that moral responsibility is essentially interpersonal -- so that being responsible must be understood by reference to the nature of holding responsible -- and that the moral emotions are central to holding responsible. While upholding these two aspects of Strawson's theory, McKenna's theory rejects a further Strawsonian thesis, which is that holding morally responsible is more fundamental or basic than being morally responsible. On the conversational theory, the conditions for holding responsible are dependent on the nature of the agent who is responsible. So holding responsible cannot be more basic than being responsible. Nevertheless, the nature of the agent who is morally responsible is to be understood in terms of sensitivity to those who would make moral demands of her, thereby holding her responsible. Being responsible is therefore also dependent on holding responsible. Thus, neither being nor holding morally responsible is more basic than the other. They are mutually dependent.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: OUP USA, Pages: 246 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780199740031


Charting the progress of Watson's thought over three decades, this collection of essays on human action examines such questions as: in what ways are we free and not free, rational and irrational, responsible or not for what we do?.
Genre: Philosophy, Editor: Oxford University Press on Demand, Pages: 388 in PDF, Epub, Mobi, ISBN: 9780199272273